The people of Azerbaijan, who were able to regain their independence in a part of their historical homeland by the close of the twentieth century, own an old and rich history of the state system.
The people of Azerbaijan, who at present constitute the second most prominent Turkic group of the world after the Turks of Anatolia, have developed a distinctive and unique culture in this land and thereby rich traditions of statecraft and governance. In historical perspective, the territories of Azerbaijan were inhabited by the great forefathers of the present Azerbaijani people, who founded the oldest civilizations in their historical lands.
On 28 May 1918, after the collapse of Russian Empire, the Muslim National Council held its opening sitting in Tiflis (presently Tbilisi, Georgia), and adopted the Declaration on Independence and the Independent Azerbaijan Republic was set up. But it lasted short, after the subsequent invasion of Azerbaijan by Soviet Red Army, Azerbaijan turned out to be a part of USSR. In this Soviet period, nationalistic ideals and moral-spiritual values of Azerbaijani nation were repressed, many patriotic scholars were killed, but it could not stop Azerbaijanis from regaining their freedom in 1991.
On 18 October 1991, Azerbaijan recovered its freedom; it adopted its first Constitution on November 12, 1995.
Text of Declaration of Independence.
Beginning form the middle of the 1990s, this country gradually started to revive and take confident steps towards resolving fateful issues under the leadership of the great leader Heydar Aliyev. First of all, the sustainability of state independence was ensured and political stability was established inside the country. At the same time, effective steps were taken to regulate the macroeconomic balance and prevent the hyperinflation that existed at the time, and difficult social issues were resolved with great determination. Economically, the years after the freedom can be separated into two fundamental periods. The time of 1991-1995 was portrayed by monetary tumult and relapse. The period after 1996 is known for an expansion in macroeconomic soundness and element monetary advancement. Oil-gas area assumed overwhelming part in creating different segments of economy. Considered financial approach prompted macroeconomic dependability and supportable monetary development, as the outcome, changes began in every single monetary field, new measures are taken keeping in mind the end goal to enhance social welfare of populace. As per the late gauges of the Davos World Economic Forum, Azerbaijan’s economy positioned 38th on the planet for the level of intensity. From an economic point of view, the Azerbaijan Republic will turn from the region’s leading state into a highly competitive participant in the international system of economic relations.
Azerbaijan has a rich agricultural and modern potential and additionally broad oil holds. Notwithstanding, the economy is vigorously reliant on outside exchange. The late 1980s and 1990s saw serious exchange with Russia and different nations in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Turkey and Iran have started to be essential exchange accomplices. The major horticultural yields are cotton, tobacco, grapes, sunflowers, tea, pomegranates, and citrus organic products; vegetables, olives, wheat, grain, and rice likewise are created. Cows, goats, and sheep are the significant wellsprings of meat and dairy items. Fish, particularly sturgeon and dark caviar, are created operating at a profit Sea district.
Politically, the administration of the Republic of Azerbaijan is sorted out at the base of standards of detachment of force. As indicated by the conventional idea of the detachment of force.
It must be particularly noticed that amid these years, Azerbaijan secured noteworthy progress in the viable determination of social issues, and the arrangement of government managed savings was built up once again in consistence with cutting edge global measures. Another annuity framework was dispatched, and an arrangement of focused social help and social stipends was set up and created. As a consequence of the fruitful social approach, the level of destitution declined from 49 for every penny in 2000 to 7.6 for every penny in 2011.
The development of a vote based society and straightforward advertising in Azerbaijan in the years of autonomy framed the primary premise of state approach. Political pluralism in the nation turned into the fundamental premise of open advancement in the nation. As of now, there are proper lawful and fair political conditions for the free exercises of political parties in the nation.
All this was possible as a result of the consistent conduct of a well-thought out and purposeful policy and in future Azerbaijan will be an economically and politically developed and competitive country and this will be a place where the population’s incomes are high, unemployment is minimum, human capital is highly developed, the environment is protected and health and every citizen has broad opportunities.
The primary undertaking in the present state is to accelerate the broadening of the economy, to keep up the high pace of the advancement of the non-oil area later on paying little mind to the level of oil incomes, to build intensity and to create send out potential outcomes.
Measures will be taken to animate thoughtful activity, actualize favorable conditions for investment in addition and creativity, ensure the acceptable development of a artistic abridgement based on bookish acreage and access its allotment in the country’s GDP. Within the framework of the concept, it is planned to advance the tourism infrastructure, aggrandize the ambit of day-tripper casework that accommodated all-embracing standards. In adjustment to about-face Azerbaijan into a bounded barter hub, it is planned to accomplish effective use of the country’s cardinal bounded position, advance alteration and carriage services and anatomy logistical center in the regions of the country. All this will as well access the country’s affability as an assembly and investment centre and advice actualize new business opportunities.